Integrating promising legume cover crop in conservation agriculture practices significantly improve wheat and soil productivity in Tigray, Ethiopian highlands

Dr Gebreyohannes Girmay1, Mr Kazuhisa Koda2, Mr Tesfay Berihu1, Dr Fujio Nagumo3, Dr Keiichi Hayashi2

1Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia, 2Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Division, Ibaraki 305-8686 , Japan, 3Crop, Livestock and Environmental Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686, Japan, Ibaraki 305-8686 , Japan

Ethiopia has been implementing climate resilient green economy strategy and conservation-based agriculture to reverse impacts of overcultivation, overgrazing and deforestation. Long term experiment has been conducted since 2017 to evaluate the roles of conservation agriculture practices for sustainable production in Tigray, Ethiopia. With split plot design, two tillage depths; (shallow and deep); two tillage frequencies (2- and 3-times); vetch cover (incorporation and mulching), wheat residue maintenance (2/3 and 1/3 residue left) were tested. The soil on the site was hard (e.g. penetrometer test 49kg/cm2 at 15cm depth), low in organic C (0.9%) and total N (0.08). The first year results showed deep-3 times plowing produced higher vetch dry matter (2.8t/ha), wheat dry matter (2.4t/ha) and wheat grain (0.97t/ha) than other treatments. Deep-2times plowing on vetch cover resulted in higher available water (AW, 4mm) and exchangeable K (3.4g/kg). Shallow-3times plowing on wheat enhanced AW (3mm), and K (3.9g/kg). Shallow-2times plowing improved available P (4.5mg/kg on vetch, 3.5mg/kg on wheat plots). Second year, zero tillage was practiced when plots were planted to wheat. Wheat yield increased to 3.4t/ha on vetch incorporation, and to 2.4t/ha on vetch mulching over control (1.6t/ha). Wheat residue maintenance, 1/3 and 2/3 left, produced 1.68t/ha and 1.39t/ha. Vetch cover crop improved soil quality: soil hardness halved (22kg/cm2 at 15cm), AW (10mm) five-fold, organic C (2.1%) and total N (0.24%) contents tripled, and available P (7.76mg/kg) and K (13g/kg) at least four-fold. Decreasing plowing depth and frequency improved P availability. Vetch cover crop enhanced fast soil restoration. Yield benefits after legume cover crops can offset yield penalty of no continuous cereal cropping. Integrating legume cover crops and cereal crop residue management in conservation agriculture strategies can restore soil and crop productivity leading to increased agricultural output for a stable economy in Ethiopia and beyond.


Gebreyohannes Girmay has his expertise in soil fertility management systems focusing on exploring techniques for improving soil quality and health. He teaches and advices post graduate students in the soil science, dryland ecology and resource management, dryland agronomy, sustainable watershed management, and dryland agroforestry and land restoration programmes in Mekelle University, Ethiopia. His current research activities focus on integrated soil fertility management, carbon sequestration in soils, reservoir conservation and sediment use, and land evaluation for irrigation.

Influence of no-tilled organic farming system with cover crops on soil organic matter and weed control

Dr Jung-lai Cho1, Dr Nan-Hee An1, Dr Cho-Rong Lee1, Dr Sang-Min Lee1

1Nias Rda, Wanju-gun, South Korea

In the last decade, interest in no-tillage systems has increased in Korea. The no-tillage system has provided economic benefits and environmental advantage especially when associated with organic farming. The study evaluated the effects of no-tilled organic farming system with cover crops on the soil organic matter and weed control. The field experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2019 at the National Institute of Agricultural Science, Wanju, Korea. Two cover crops rye (Secale cerale L.) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), were cultivated in winter season under momo-culture and mixed culture. The cover crops were sown in October from 2014 to 2018, mowed and left as a surface mulch in May of the following year. The statistical design was completely randomized with four replecations. The field was cultivated in 2014 season, but seeding was done after 2015 on no-tilled bed, and covered with plant residues and compost to improve seedling rate. In summer, soybean (Glycine max L.) was cultivated from 2015 to 2017, and with hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) under mixed cultures in 2018 and 2019. Soil characteristics including soil penetration resistance were investigated before cover crop and summer crop cultivation. In order to compare weed control effects of cover crops, weed weights were measured at 30 day intervals after transplanting. The results showed that four years of no-tillage increased soil organic matter contents from 15.9g/kg to 29.4g/kg and was significantly different with that of conventional tillage. The weed suppression rates of cover crops application for rye and mixture (rye+hairy vetch) treatment during 60 days after transplanting were 80% and 30%, respectively. However, weed suppression rate of hairy vetch treatment was not significantly different as compared to weedy control plots. In summary, th no-tillage cultivation using cover crops was effective in increasing organic matter content and soil improvement.


National Institute of Agricultural Science

Organic Agriculture Division

Rural Development Administration

Unravelling the climate-soil-management interaction to explore SOM in the Brigalow Belt bioregion, Queensland, Australia

Dr Diane Allen1, Dr Matthew Pringle1, Professor Ram Dalal1,2, Dr Don Butler1, Dr Tom Orton1,2,3, Associate Professor Tom Bishop3, Dr Beverley Henry4

1Queensland Government Department Of Environment And Science, Dutton Park, Australia, 2University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia, 3University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 4Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

In this poster presentation, we provide a case study examining Soil and land management within the Brigalow Belt bioregion of Queensland, Australia.  Occupying less than 10% of its former approximately 7.5 million hectare distribution, recovery of this ecological community is a focus for biodiversity planning assessments (State of Queensland, 2018), although the interactions between soil and variation in land management across the large area are complex.

With an SOM cycling focus, we present a ‘snapshot’ of measured data from 45 sites representing remnant uncleared native brigalow forest, native brigalow forest cleared then maintained as pasture for >10 years, and regrowing native brigalow forest ranging from 10 to 58 years. We consider SOM properties including C and N dynamics (stocks, fractions and natural abundance signatures) and associated soil physical, biological and chemical properties.  We illustrate two common approaches to statistical modelling – regression trees and linear mixed models – to SOM data, including explanatory variables relating to climate, soil and past land management, the interactions between them. We visualise the data in the form of regression trees linked to linear mixed models, explicitly accounting for spatial autocorrelation and enabling the presentation of realistic uncertainties alongside the models’ predictions.

Finally, we explore ‘where next’ for SOM understanding in this ecological community, in the context of emerging policy areas of land restoration and environmental accounts.


Dr Diane Allen is a principal scientist within Queensland Government Department of Environment and Science, Science Delivery, Landscape Sciences Unit.  Part of a Soil Processes team, she has a background in examining soil processes in relation to land use and land use change in sub-tropical and tropical ecosystems, including sugarcane, wetlands, rangelands, afforestation and regrowth. An active member of Soil Science Australia and an adjunct at University of Queensland School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Di enjoys supporting early career students and the intersection of science and policy areas.

Temporal and spatial variation of soil organic matter and soil acidity in surface soils under rice-based intensive farming in floodplain soils

Mr Md Noor E Alam Siddique1, A/Prof Lisa Lobry de Bruyn1, A/Prof Chris N. Guppy1, Dr Yui Osanai1

1School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, Australia

The assessment of temporal and spatial variation in soil organic matter (SOM) and soil reaction trend can identify the potential threats to soil fertility and long-term sustainability of farming system. This study quantified the spatiotemporal variations in SOM and soil pH of paddy soils between 1990 and 2010 in the northern Bangladesh. Soil legacy data sets collected from these two time periods were categorised according to prevailing soil series, physiographic position and major soil types. SOM status in all soil types was generally low (10-17 g/kg). SOM content has increased marginally, but remains low, which is hypothesised to be related to increasing cropping intensity and fertilisation over this same period. Inundation land type and local differences in smallholder management is hypothesised to have influenced SOM variability, however land management has yet to be investigated. Soil reaction trend between 1990 and 2010 measurements in agricultural soils has decreased by 0.5 units with a 50% increase in soils falling below a pH of 5.5 over the 20 year survey period. Soil acidification is potentially a combination of inefficient and excess use of ammonium based fertilisers with highly variable application rate, low input from crop residues, and underlying light texture topsoils and high rainfall. We speculate that whilst acidification may continue to fall with more intensive land use, SOM has reached a stable, but very low, equilibrium and is unlikely to fall further.  Therefore,  future research priorities addressing C and N dynamics, optimising the use of fertilisers (particularly N), better crop residue management and lime based amelioration of acidic soils will improve the sustainability of rice-based farming system in the northern Bangladesh.


Md Noor E Alam Siddique is a Senior Scientific Officer from the Soil Resource Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh. He is currently in second year of PhD at University of New England, Australia. He has background on Agronomy and Soil Science. He works on soil fertility management, soil characterization and soil survey.

Using organic and inorganic soil amendments to improve soil quality and plant recruitment for mine rehabilitation in arid landscapes

Ms Amber Bateman1, Dr Todd Erickson1, Dr Erik Veneklaas1, Dr David Merrit2, Dr Miriam Munoz-Rojas3

1The University Of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, 2The Department of Biodiversity,Conservation and Attractions, Perth, Australia, 3The University of New South Wales, Randwick, Australia

In the arid Pilbara region in the north-west of Western Australia the disturbance footprint caused by large-scale mining practices exceeds 230,000 ha and has contributed to the loss of soil quality and functional ecosystems. Soils used in mine site rehabilitation are physically, chemically and biologically different to natural topsoil and lack the soil nutrients, organic matter and biological life necessary to support plant life and sustainable ecosystems. As such, the rehabilitation of these landscapes is challenging. Here, we present case studies based on the Pilbara region that examines the effect of organic and inorganic soil amendments (gypsum, urea, mulches and biochar) on plant establishment and soil quality in the context of mine site rehabilitation in an arid landscape. In addition, we discuss the role of native plant communities to improve soil quality. This research sought to test the effectiveness of soil amendments to promote soil recovery and the recruitment of plants used in dryland rehabilitation. Our results showed that although the use of inorganic amendments increased plant growth, the effects on soil quality is limited. However, the use of mulches as an amendment in rehabilitation increased soil organic matter and soil microbial activity. The soil quality of mine soils increased through the successful establishment of a diverse native plant community that increased litter quality and quantity. However, water was the predominant driver for determining the effectiveness of the soil amendments with changes in soil and plant indicators significantly decreasing as water became scarce. These studies contribute to understanding how soil amendments effect soil quality and plant recruitment in post-mining rehabilitation in arid regions and their role in reinstating functioning ecosystems.


I am a third- year PhD student at the University of Western Australia and Kings Park Botanic Gardens in Perth. My project involves working with mining industry partners to develop methods for improving the soil quality of soil substrates used in mine site rehabilitation in the Pilbara. Through this research I hope to find ways of increase soil physical, chemical and biological health using a various organic and inorganic soil amendments and diverse native plant communities to encourage the establishment of sustainable native ecosystems on mine rehabilitation sites.

Soil organic carbon and related impacts of the Warrumbungles wildfire

Dr Mitchell Tulau1, Dr Xihua  Yang2, Ms Robin McAlpine2, Dr Mano Veeragathipillai3, Dr Senani Karunaratne2, Mr Mingxi Zhang2, Ms Sally McInnes-Clarke4

1NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Port Macquarie , Australia, 2NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Parramatta, Australia, 3NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Yanco, Australia, 4NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Gosford, Australia

A wildfire in the Warrumbungle range in January 2013 burnt 56,290 ha, 72% of it at high-extreme severity. We examined the effects of the fire on soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen and soil microbial activity, spatially extrapolated results to estimate the overall impacts of the fire and estimated the long-term post burn recovery trajectory. We measured SOC fractions at 64 sites across four fire severity classes and three main geology/soil types. Soils were sampled for LECO TOC, MIR soil C fractions and N (64 sites x 5 sub-sites x 4 depths) and soil microbial activity by MicroResp across the range of fire severities. Topsoil SOC in low severity sites was 14% lower than unburnt sites, and severely burnt sites were 54% lower. These results were also reflected in losses in N and microbial activity. Statistical models indicated that the key effects on SOC were fire severity and geology/soil type. The highest SOC values were from unburnt volcanic topsoils. Sandier and especially sandstone-derived soils have less SOC irrespective of the fire severity class. The lowest SOC values were from severely burnt sandstone ridges, where most of the remaining SOC occurs as resistant OC (including charcoal). Site data was extrapolated by 1m LiDAR DEM and a fire severity map based on RapidEye and ADS40 imagery. It was estimated that 2.5 Mt (44 t/ha) of SOC was lost over the fire ground to 10 cm, with ~74,000 t of N lost. Spatial fire history data were used to estimate rates of SOC accumulation and a timeline for long-term recovery of SOC in the absence of fire. Recovery of SOC to pre-burn levels is expected to take several decades.


Mitch has 30 years’ experience in soil survey and acid sulfate soils in south-eastern Australia, and 10 years in fire-related assessment and research. He is a founding member of the Burnt Area Assessment Team, which assesses post-fire risks in eastern Australia, and is the author of the most comprehensive review of the impacts of fire on soils in Australia. He designed and led the soils and geomorphology research projects following the 2013 Warrumbungles wildfire, and is currently scientific advisor to the Rural Fire Service on peat fires.

Responses of soil carbon pool and soil aggregates associated organic carbon to the addition of rapeseed straw and/or straw-derived biochar in a rapeseed/maize cropping system

Professor Xinhua He1,2, Ms Rong Huang1, Mr Dong  Tian1, Mr Jiang Liu1, Mr Sheng Lv1, Mr Ming Gao1

1Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources & Environment, Southwest University, Beibei, China, 2School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

How to link soil carbon (C) sequestration or restoration with straw utilization is an enormous challenge for agriculture. The addition of straw-based organic matters including fresh straw, decomposed straw or straw-derived biochar to soil can alter soil C pools. To understand the potential of soil C sequestration and dynamics after the addition of straw and/or straw-derived biochar, an in situ mesocosm experiment in purple soil (Eutric Regosol) was performed under five treatments: (1) no straw/biochar control (CT), (2) straw only (ST), (3) straw with a straw-decay bacterium (STDB), (4) biochar only (BC) and (5) straw plus biochar (STBC). Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from soil, soil organic C (SOC), labile organic C (LOC), and soil aggregate associated OC were analyzed within a dryland rapeseed/maize cropping system. Results showed that soil CO2 flux increased with the addition of straws (ST, STBC and STDB), but decreased under BC because its lower LOC, particularly the microbial biomass C fraction in LOC. The combined application of STDB increased percentage of macro-aggregates (>2mm and 0.25-2mm). Meanwhile, both the decomposition of organic matter and the CO2 flux were increased. The 0.053-0.25mm aggregates under BC had the highest fine intra-aggregate particulate organic C (iPOC), which promoted C sequestration. However, the higher coarse-iPOC in >2mm and 0.25-2mm aggregates under ST and STDB promoted SOC decomposition and also CO2 flux. Compared with all three straw treatments (ST, STBC and STDB), the sole biochar addition improved the physical protections for SOC from soil aggregates, but reduced CO2 flux, while increased net C sequestration without significant decreases of crop yields and net primary productivity. Our results demonstrated differential responses of soil C pool and aggregates associated organic C to straw and/or straw-derived biochar addition while providing insights into the potential for soil C sequestration or restoration by using agriculture based organic materials.


Xinhua is currently a Professor and Director of Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology at Southwest University, Chongqing China (2015-). He has held a PhD in Plant Ecophysiology from University of Queensland, Australia since 2002, and then worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow at UC Davis and University of Tokyo, Senior Research Scientist at USDA and University of Western Australia.

During the past 20 years, Xinhua has focused on carbon/nitrogen movement in agricultural and natural ecosystems, roles of soil beneficial microbes in plant ecophysiology and soil structural stability and health, nano-minerals complexation in the preservation of soil organic matter under contrasting fertilizations. Xinhua is currently exploring emerging technologies including stable isotopes of 13C and 15N, Pyrosequencing, Electron Microscopy, Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (nano-SIMS), and Synchrotron Radiation Facility, etc., to address above-mentioned topics in a variety of plant-microbial-soil systems under global environmental change scenarios.

Currently Xinhua has >200 publications including 3 books, 26 book chapters and >170 papers in a variety of journal including Agri Ecosyst Environ, Biol Fert Soils, Biogeosciences, Glob Biogeochem Cy, Nature Commu, Nature Geosci, New Phytologist, Plant Soil, SBB, Trends Ecol & Evol, Trends Plant Sci, Tree Physiol, etc. (see At present Xinhua has presented >100 talks at various universities and international conferences and his research has been viewed by 70,000 times by >4,000 readers from the Mendeley data base. Xinhua has been servicing as a Section Editor for Plant and Soil (2015) and an Associate Editor Soil Research (2019) and a regular peer reviewer for >100 journals and funding bodies (ARC, GRDC, BBSRC sLOLA, NSF, NSFC, USDA and NOW) around the world.

Indigenous soil microbes and multi-planting strategies for increasing soil carbon and function in dryland restoration

Dr Miriam Muñoz-Rojas1,2,3, Dr Todd E.  Erickson2,3, Mrs Amber M. Bateman2,3, Dr Angela Chilton1, Dr David Merritt2,3

1Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, AU, 3Kings Park Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Kings Park, Australia

Global environmental changes and other anthropogenic impacts are rapidly transforming the structure and functioning of ecosystems worldwide. These changes are leading to soil degradation with an estimated 25 % of the global land surface being affected. The need to develop cost-effective large-scale solutions to restore disturbed landscapes becomes imperative to preserve biodiversity and achieve ecosystem functionality and sustainability. As part of a large-scale industry-academia partnership, we have developed a soil research program that aims to build knowledge and design strategies to restore degraded landscapes in Western Australia and other dryland regions worldwide. Within this program, a series of laboratory experiments, glasshouse studies, and field trials, have been conducted over the last five years to advance our knowledge on soil limitations and to provide solutions to enhance soil carbon levels and restore above and belowground biodiversity in restoration programs. These studies include (i) the analysis of the influence of multi-species planting on soil organic carbon and microbial activity and diversity (ii) the evaluation of soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators to assess functionality of restored soils in degraded semiarid ecosystems and (ii) the development of nature-based strategies based on bio-tools (e.g. inoculation of soil biocrust cyanobacteria) to increase soil carbon and enhance overall soil function. In this presentation we will highlight some key findings of these studies that include the benefits of combining diverse plant species and using native microbes and organic amendments for increasing soil carbon and promote soil function in reconstructed soil substrates. We will also discuss the potential applicability of these bio-technological approaches in landscape-scale restoration programs.


Dr Miriam Muñoz-Rojas is an ARC DECRA Research Fellow at the University of New South Wales in Sydney (Australia). Her current research aims to develop innovative technologies that use native soil microorganisms to enhance ecosystem function in ecosystem restoration. This interdisciplinary research combines ecophysiological, biogeochemical and molecular techniques with experimental and modelling approaches to explore the functioning of natural and restored biodiverse ecosystems.

Composition of soil organic matter drives the loss of persistent organic pollutants

Mr Christian Krohn1, Dr.  Jian Jin1, Dr. John Ryan2, Dr. Piotr Fabijański2, Assoc. Prof.  Ashley Franks1, Prof. Caixian Tang1

1La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia, 2Department of Job, Precincts and Regions, Australia

The internationally banned agricultural insecticides dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continue to exceed government thresholds in some Australian surface soils (0 – 10 cm) – 30 years after their last use. Their extreme persistence in soils is believed to be governed by sorption to soil organic matter (SOM), hence their existence in SOM-rich, high-value pastures limits land use options as grazing animals accumulate residues in their fat. To enhance remediation, more knowledge is needed of soil factors and microbial community dynamics involved in microbial in-situ degradation of these man-made organochlorine chemicals. Furthermore, while DDT-degrading strains have been successfully isolated in the past, there are no known microbial species with substrate specificity to dieldrin. A total of 12 contaminated paddocks with records of dieldrin and DDT concentrations dating from 1980 were sampled again in 2017. We hypothesised that SOM is a key factor affecting microbial biomass and diversity which would in turn affect biodegradation and total loss of the pollutants after 30 years. Correlations between total loss and current concentrations of dieldrin and DDT residues and soil physicochemical measurements, microbial biomass carbon, microbial community diversity indices and microbial community abundance were analysed. Low C:N ratios of SOM, high microbial biomass and high fungal community evenness correlated with an increased loss of dieldrin after 23 – 30 years, but sorption to SOM and clay likely inhibited further degradation. This indicated that co-metabolism of dieldrin and DDT could be enhanced by manipulating the quality of SOM to cater for a broad microbial functional diversity. Future culture studies will help to confirm whether microbial metabolism in these soils has evolved to utilise dieldrin or DDT as a primary carbon source, which taxa are involved and what role SOM composition plays in degradation of these pollutants.


Christian Krohn is a graduate researcher at the department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences at La Trobe University. His research, which is funded through the Australian Research Training Program, focusses on defining impacts of management practices on microbial remediation of persistent organochlorine insecticides in surface soils. He received a Bachelor degree of Science with first-degree honours at La Trobe University in 2017. Before Christian’s interests in agriculture and science compelled him to focus on an academic path, he pursued an industrial career that started in Germany and took him to Australia.

Decomposition and alteration of organic matter during remediation of a sandy acid sulfate soil

Dr Angelika Koelbl1,2, Franziska Bucka1, Prof Petra Marschner3, Prof Luke Mosley4, Prof Rob Fitzpatrick4, Prof Ingrid Koegel-Knabner1,5

1Soil science, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany, 2Soil science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany, 3School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 4Acid Sulfate Soils Centre, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 5Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany

When acid sulfate soils dry, oxidation of pyrite can cause strong acidification (pH <4) to form sulfuric material. Re-saturation of acid sulfate soils with sulfuric material can lead to re-formation of Fe-sulfides and pH increase through activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), which require sufficient available organic carbon (OC). Despite the general knowledge about positive impacts of OC sources for ameliorating sulfuric soils, little is known about OC consumption and changes of OC composition of native and added organic substrates during the amelioration process. To investigate remediation of a sandy, OC-poor sulfuric soil (initial pH = 2.5), a 10-week anoxic incubation experiment was conducted under submerged conditions. Organic C amounts between 50% up to 200% of the native soil OC content were added as wheat straw and lactate. Lactate was used to test if this selectively promotes the activity of SRB, and thus, accelerates sulfate reduction and pH neutralization. The results showed that OC additions of ≥ 50% of native soil OC content and pre-adjustment of pH to values ≥ 5.0 were sufficient to enhance microbial reduction, which increased the pH to values ≥ 5.5. Further, OC additions of ≥ 100% of native soil OC increased mineral-associated OC. The addition of OC as lactate solution in combination with wheat straw led to quickest changes of pH and redox values and resulted in pH ≥ 7 and redox values ≤ -300mV, which was accompanied by high CO₂ release indicating an active microbial population. Thus, application of wheat straw-lactate – mixtures led to the quickest remediation success. However, OC losses due to microbial degradation and formation of less available mineral-associated OC may require repeated OC addition.


Between 2000 and 2018, Angelika Kölbl was postdoctoral researcher at the Chair of Soil Science, Technical University of Munich, Germany. In 2019, she started to work at the Institute of Soil Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. Her research focuses on the amount, composition and allocation of soil organic matter under different land uses, with particular regard to changing redox conditions. In her current research project, she investigates the composition, storage and availability of organic matter in acid sulfate soils.



7th International Symposium
Soil Organic Matter

6 – 11 October 2019

Hilton Adelaide

Adelaide, South Australia


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