The Hydrophobicity Characteristics and IR Spectra of Tropical Peat Soil : Case Study of Land Use Change in Ex Mega Rice Project Kalimantan

Dr Zafrullah Damanik1, Dr.  FENGKY FLORANTE ADJI1, Dr. Nina Yulianti1, Dr. Laura Graham2, Ms Amanda Sinclair3, Dr. Samantha Groover3

1Cimtrop, University Of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia, 2Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation, Palangka Raya, Indonesia, 3RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

The over drainage due big canals, deforestation and land use change in Kalimantan peatland when Mega Rice Project (MRP) starts  caused environmental problems, especially fires and decreased quality of peat soils. The increase of hydrophobicity or irreversible drying is one indicator of the decline in the quality of peat soils. It’s found in degraded and burned peatlands. This study aims to study the effect of land use change on FTIR spectra and its relation to the hydrophobicity of peat soil. Surface soil samples of peat soil were taken from the Mentangai Central Kalimantan region (Block A Ex-MRP Project) with different land uses (secondary forest, burnt, oil palm, and revegetation area), to determine C-organic contents, FTIR spectra and hydrophobicity. The results showed that there were differences in percent of C-aliphatic area and hydrophobicity index between each land use. The parameters of the hydrophobicity index can be used to evaluate the quality of peat soil in relation to land use changes.


Spatial variation of earthworm communities and soil organic carbon in temperate agroforestry

Dr Rémi Cardinael1,2,3, Dr Kevin Hoeffner4, Pr Claire Chenu3, Dr Tiphaine Chevallier2, Camille Béral5, Antoine Dewisme4, Dr Daniel Cluzeau4

1Cirad – UR AIDA, Montpellier, France, 2IRD – UMR Eco&Sols, Montpellier, France, 3AgroParisTech – UMR Ecosys, Thiverval-Grignon, France, 4Univ-Rennes – UMR Ecobio, Rennes, France, 5Agroof, Anduze, France

The aim of this study was to assess how soil organic C (SOC) stocks and earthworm communities were modified in agroforestry systems compared to treeless control plots, and within the agroforestry plots (tree rows vs alleys). We used a network of 13 silvoarable agroforestry sites in France along a North/South gradient. Total earthworm abundance and biomass were significantly higher in the tree rows than in the control plots, but were not modified in the alleys compared to the control plots. Earthworm species richness, Shannon index, and species evenness were significantly higher in the tree rows than in the alleys. Total abundance of epigeic, epi-anecic, strict anecic and endogeic was higher in the tree rows. Surprisingly, earthworm individual weight was significantly lower in the tree rows than in the alleys and in the control plots. SOC stocks were significantly higher in the tree rows compared to the control plots across all sites. Despite higher SOC stocks in the tree rows, the amount of available C per earthworm individual was lower compared to the control. The absence of disturbance (no tillage, no fertilizers, no pesticides) in the tree rows rather than increased SOC stocks therefore seems to be the main factor explaining the increased total abundance, biomass, and diversity of earthworms. The observed differences in earthworm communities between tree rows and alleys may lead to modified and spatially structured SOC dynamics within agroforestry plots.


Professor of Soil Science at AgroParisTech

Organic carbon decomposition rates with depth under an agroforestry system in a calcareous soil

Dr Rémi Cardinael1,2,3, Dr Tiphaine Chevallier2, Dr Bertrand Guenet4, Dr Cyril Girardin5, MSc Thomas Cozzi3, Valérie Pouteau5, Dr Claire Chenu3

1Cirad – UR AIDA, Montpellier, France, 2IRD – UMR Eco&Sols, Montpellier, France, 3AgroParisTech – UMR Ecosys, Thiverval-Grignon, France, 4CNRS – LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 5INRA – UMR Ecosys, Thiverval-Grignon, France

Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in the form of carbonates is found in a large part of soils, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. Despite their important distribution at the global scale, the organic carbon dynamic has been poorly investigated in these soils due to the complexity of measurement and of the processes involved. It requires the removal of carbonates by acid dissolution or the use of natural isotopes to discriminate the carbon originating from the soil organic carbon (SOC) than the one from the carbonates. We incubated soil samples, coming from an 18-year-old agroforestry system (both tree row and alley) and an adjacent agricultural plot established in the South of France, during 44 days. Soil samples were taken at four different depths: 0-10, 10-30, 70-100 and 160-180 cm. Total CO2 emissions, the isotopic composition (δ13C, ‰) of the CO2 and microbial biomass were measured. The contribution of SIC-derived CO2 represented about 20% in the topsoil and 60% in the subsoil of the total soil CO2 emissions. The SOC-derived CO2, or heterotrophic soil respiration, was higher in the topsoil, but the decomposition rates (day-1) remained stable with depth, suggesting that only the size of the labile carbon pool was modified with depth. Subsoil organic carbon seems to be as prone to decomposition as surface organic carbon. No difference in CO2 emissions was found between the agroforestry and the control plot, except in the tree row at 0-10 cm where the carbon content and microbial biomass were higher, but the decomposition remained lower. Our results suggest that the measurement of soil respiration in calcareous soils could be overestimated if the isotopic signature of the CO2 is not taken into account. It also advocates more in-depth studies on dissolution-precipitation processes and their impact on CO2 emissions in these soils.


Professor of Soil Science at AgroParisTech

Transformation of corn stalk residue to humus like substances during solid state fermentation with Trichoderma reesei

Prof. Sen Dou1, Lili Wang2, Lobo Li1, Xuyang Shi3, Xintong Liu3, Xiaodong Ren3

1College of Resource and Environmental Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China, 2School of Life Science, Anhui University, Hefei, China, 3School of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, China

Cellulase production from straw waste by Trichoderma reesei has been widely applied, yet the conversion of fermentation residues into humic substances is less reported. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impacts of Trichoderma reesei on the degradation of corn stalk residue under solid-state fermentation from quantitative and structural aspects. The results show that the highest decomposition rate of corn stalk and the highest activity of cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were got at the 4th day. The cumulative degradation rate was 40.78% after 8 days fermentation. Humus like substance including humic acid-like (HAL), fulvic acid-like (FAL) and humin-like material (HML), is a major transformation product of corn stalk residues. FAL and HML significantly decreased during fermentation, whereas HAL and PQ value (the ratio of HAL / [HAL + FAL]) appeared to be increased. Moreover, HAL degrees of condensation, oxidation, aromatization as well as HAL thermal stability were all enhanced. The data in this study suggest that the fermentation of corn stalk amended with Trichoderma reesei is not only beneficial to the degradation of stalks, but also promotes the transformation of corn stalk to humus, which provide available use of Trichoderma reesei in agricultural soil amelioration.

Acknowledgements This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant No. 2016YFD0200304)


Prof of College of Resource and Environmental Science, Jilin Agricultural University.

Nanoscale chemical imaging of organo-mineral fractions of an andosol (La Martinique, France)

Miss Floriane JAMOTEAU1, Mr Nithavong CAM1, Mr Clément LEVARD1, Mr Thierry WOIGNIER2,3, Mr Romain SOULAS4,5, Mrs Isabelle BASILE-DOELSCH1

1Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence,  France, 2Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie, Campus Agro Environnemental Caraïbes, Le Lamentin, France, 3Univ Avignon, CNRS, IRD, IMBE, Marseille, France, 4Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000, Grenoble, France, 5CEA, LITEN,  17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054, Grenoble, France

Organo-mineral associations are a main process driving organic matter (OM) stabilization in soils, but mechanisms of their dynamics are still not fully known. Basile-Doelsch et al. suggested that mineral alteration generating amorphous phases on minerals’s surfaces was a driver of OM stabilization. Coprecipitation synthesis led to a new model of organo-mineral associations at nanoscale, combining nanosized Co-precipitates of inorganic oLIgomers with organiCs molecules (nanoCLICs, Tamrat et al.). In the present study, we investigated nanoCLICs in soils using TEM (FEI Tecnai Osiris 200kV) coupled with 4 EDX detectors and EELS to semi-quantify C, N and major elements. We analyzed an andosol (15-20 cm) from La Martinique (French West Indies). OM-short-range-order and mineral associations were collected in the supernatant after sonication and a 48h-decantation. Areas analyzed ranged from 5 µm to 300 nm with pixel resolutions from 500 to 3 nm. Amorphous mineral phases were dominant. Fe, Si, Al and O were the main component and were homogeneous at nanoscale. Even down to 50 nm they were systematically associated to C and N. Proportions varied about 60% of Si, 30% of Al and 10% of Fe. No imogolites or allophanes were observed, mineral phases must be less polymerized (Levard et al.). Images acquired are similar to those obtained by coprecipitation on synthetic samples (Cam et al.). The nanoCLICs model (Tamrat et al.) seems to be valid in andosols. By focusing on a mg-vermiculite surrounded by amorphous material, chemical profiles showed an increasing C content from the center of the vermiculite to the amorphous material (over 150 nm). Although the amorphous phase may be bonded on mineral surface by sample preparation, these first results suggest a continuous alteration of minerals resulting in an amorphous phase progressively associated to OM molecules, as proposed by Basile-Doelsch et al.


Dr I. Basile-Doelsch. MSc in Geology (ENSG, Nancy, France), PhD in Geochemistry for paleoclimatic reconstructions (Vostok ice core, Antarctica), Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches in geochemistry of soils and weathering systems in the critical zone. She is specialized in organomineral interactions in soils. She has been an Aix-Marseille University lecturer since 1998 (France), and a junior member of the prestigious “Institut Universitaire de France” from 2011 to April 2015. As of May 2015, she became a Director of Research at the French INRA institute(CEREGE). She recently spent one year as a visiting scientist in Jeff’s Baldock group at CSIRO Adelaide.

N and P co-limitation of carbon turnover in a clayey loam very deep subsoil

Ms Leanne Peixoto1, Jørgen Eivind  Olesen1, Dr Jim  Rasmussen1, Dr Lars  Elsgaard1

1Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Tjele, Denmark

The growth of deep-rooted crops within agricultural soils has the potential to increase carbon deposition within deep subsoil layers potentially mitigating climate change. The growth of these deep-rooted crops and subsequent availability of both labile C substrates and nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and/or sulfur (S) have the potential to influence both C turnover and stability within deep subsoil layers. The present study utilized intact soil samples obtained from 5-6 m to study the effects of nutrient limitations for microbial C turnover when glucose or an artificial root exudate (ARE) mixture, and supplementary nutrients (N-P-S) were introduced as different treatments to deep subsoil samples during a 10-week incubation study. Our results document that C substrates alone are not the only drivers in C turnover, although significant differences between the addition of only C substrates were documented with the addition of only glucose compared to the addition of the ARE mixture. Such differences were interpreted as a partial alleviation of the N limitation due to the N-containing amino acid, L-arginine within the ARE mixture, but differences are also a likely a response to the diversity of compounds within the ARE mixture. Furthermore, we found potential effects of a co-limitation of N and P on C turnover in these deep subsoil samples to depths of 5-6 m, far exceeding depths from previous studies. As such, based on the co-limitation of N and P as observed within this study, it is important to know the N and P status of subsoils to predict the fate of organic C in deep soils as the production of microbial residues is based on the coupling of these nutrients to meet the stoichiometric microbial demand. Hence, managements removing such limitations could facilitate the stability and long-term storage of C in deep subsoil.


“I am a PhD Student at Aarhus University at the Department of Agroecology within the Climate and Water section. The main aim of the project is to investigate the potential for long-term soil carbon storage in subsoil from deep rooted crops by quantifying the effect of deep rooted crops on soil carbon stocks, and improving our understanding of the factors controlling deposition and decomposition of carbon in deep soil layers.”

Tropical peat properties post repeated fires in Indonesia

Dr Nina Yulianti1, Dr. Fengky  Florante Adji1, Dr Zafrullah  Damanik1, Dr Yanetri Asi1

1University Of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Indonesia

The total area of peatland in Central Kalimantan Province is the second largest in Indonesia, where is distributed in the southern part. However, the peatland had experience annual forest and peat fire. This repeated disaster could have the impact on the peat characteristics This study is a preliminary research to investigate the chemistry, physic, biology and thermal properties from several peatland sites in Central Kalimantan. Peat samples were from Pulang Pisau, Palangka Raya, Kapuas, Katingan and Kotawaringin Timur. The sample collection of had been done post 2015 and 2009 severe fire, from the end of dry to the rain season. The sampling method was simple random sampling with three replication point. The peat sample took from the depth from 0 to 50 cm below the surface. The parameters in this study were pH, organic C, macro nutrient, bases, CEC, BS, water content, bulk density, fiber content, color, fungal and bacterial populations and calorific value. The characteristics of peat fertility were interpreted using the TOR Center for Soil Research (1983). The results showed that peat had a very acidic condition (< 4) even though in some agricultural locations with calcification treatment, C-total was very high (> 50%, except in shallow peat), N-total varied from moderate to very high, K-dd was very the high, CEC was very high, and base saturation was very low. In the study location, peat color was black and blackish brown with had mature decomposition, the bulk density was lowest than 0.3 g cm-3 and the water content ranged from 148-234%. Furthermore, the fungal population is more than the bacterial population on high acidity peat. The peat from Pulang Pisau location, shows that the heating value maximum was 26 kJg-1. The result of this study is expected to be a reference in peatland management in Indonesia.


Nina Yulianti is is an Associate Professor in University of Palangka Raya. Currently, she is a head of research group of fire and emission in Center for International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatland (CIMTROP). She is a member of Objective 3 of  ACIAR Project “Improving Community Fire Management and Peatland Rehabilitation in Indonesia holds a PhD from Hokkaido University in Human Environmental Systems. Her expertise is Environmental science; forest and peatland fire analysis; peatland ecology; agroclimatology. Her research and teaching span experimental, field observation and remote sensing approaches, with particular focus on sustainable ecosystems. She is interested in the conservation and management of tropical and boreal peatland through the lens of geology, biology and society.

The Home Field Advantage theory could be used for carbon sequestration and forest management?

Dr Nicolas Valette1,2, Dr Eric Gelhaye2, Dr Gry Alfredsen3, Dr Barry Goodell4, Dr Delphine Derrien1

1INRA, Biogeochemistry of Forest Ecosystems, Nancy, France, 2INRA-Lorraine University, Interactions Arbres Micro-organismes, Nancy, France, 3Norwegian institute of bioeconomy reseach, As, Norway, 4University of Massachusetts, Departement of microbiology, Amherst, USA

Forest soils represent a third of the terrestrial area and have a key role in carbon cycle and climate mitigation, as they store between 50 and 80% of the global stock of soil organic carbon (SOC). The major precursor of forest SOC is the dead wood mainly composed by three polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In coniferous forest, they are recycled mainly by brown rot fungi and specific bacterial communities. Brown rot fungi are able to mineralize polysaccharidic part and only modify the lignin chemically using hydroxy radicals in a mediated-Fenton reaction. Some recent findings suggest that the associated bacterial communities could be responsible for the degradation of the persisting altered lignin residues.

According to the Home Field Advantage theory the decomposition rate is more rapid and efficient when litter is placed beneath the natural plant species than beneath a different plant species. We hypothesize that the specific bacterial communities, which co-occur with brown rot are important for the velocity and efficiency of lignin degradation. Therefore, microbial communities from a broadleaf stand would be less efficient than coniferous communities. To test this hypothesis, wood blocks from Poplar, Norway spruce and Beech were pre-degraded by Gloeophyllum trabeum a brown rot fungus. When mass loss reached around 25 %, they were buried under litter layer either in a Norway spruce stand or a Beech stand. After 6 months, wood blocks will be collected. Wood mass loss and chemical changes will be assessed. Moreover, a metabarcoding approach will be performed to determine the microbial communities potentially responsible for wood degradation. These results could be translated into recommendations for forest management to optimize soil carbon sequestration under altered lignin form.


Nicolas Valette is a young postdoctoral researcher in microbial ecology. He is working with two team belong to INRA center of Nancy: Trees-Microbes Interactions and Biogeochemistry of Forests Ecosystems. He is involved in a research project named BRAWO whose the aim is to better understand the fate of lignin into forest ecosystems and more particularly the impact of wood decay fungi in its carbon recycling.

Farmers, advisers and researchers’ perceptions of soil organic matter

Dr Nathan Robinson1, Assoc Prof Peter Dahlhaus1, Dr Megan Wong1, Jennifer Corbett1, Melissa Cann2, Rebecca Mitchell3, Diana Fear4, Dr Susan Orgill5

1Federation University, Mt Helen, Australia, 2Agriculture Victoria, Swan Hill, Australia, 3Agriculture Victoria, Epsom, Australia, 4Central West Farming Systems, Condobolin, Australia, 5NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga, Australia

There are many different actors (farmers, agronomists, consultants, industry representatives and researchers) influencing management decisions that underpin soil organic matter (SOM) levels and soil health. In 2018, three independent surveys were undertaken as part of the CRC for High Performance Soils (Soil CRC) that were individually focused on issues of: identifying grower perceptions on soil constraints to their farming system; perceptions of advisers and key industry personnel to soil constraints and production, and what data, information, tools and methods (indicators) are being used and collected by farmers, advisers and researchers. Survey 1 (Parsons et al., 2018) involved 111 participants from 19 grower groups (five states). Survey 2 (Orgill et al., 2018) included 135 respondents (advisers) of which 96 estimated that they were working with over 3,275 clients in 6 states. Survey 3 (Dahlhaus et al., 2018) attracted 122 respondents with farmers (38%), advisers (30%) and researchers (16%) being the major response groups of this survey. Survey 1 identified that over 50% of participants soil tested every 3-5 years and that organic matter (carbon) was the third most tested analyte at nearly 80% (only pH and available phosphorus were higher). Advisers in Survey 2 listed up to six constraints of greatest concern to their client, with low organic matter rated overall as having a very high priority (only acidity and nutrient decline/deficiency rated higher). Perceptions of the use of SOM to judge soil performance varied between farmers, advisers and researchers, with advisers less inclined than farmers and researchers to use organic matter in assessment of soil performance. 53% of respondents in Survey 3 used SOM observations on an annual basis or more frequent interval, as compared to soil moisture (70%), waterlogging and drainage (59%) respectively. The surveys collectively demonstrate similar sentiment on the importance of SOM for improved management decision making.


Nathan Robinson joined Federation University in 2017 after working in soil and landscape analysis with state government for 18 years. Nathan is a Senior Research Fellow and is on national committees for digital soil mapping and assessment and clay mineralogy. Nathan has published journal papers and book chapters on soil analysis, mapping, modelling and interpretation for use by land managers and has led many projects including ‘Understanding Soils and Farming Systems’ and ‘the use of proximal sensors and rapid sensing techniques for assessing soil properties and links to crop yield’. As a farmer, he is passionate about delivering soil data and information that has impact, leading to more informed and precise decisions for better soil management.

Multimodal and multimodel approach for estimation of soil organic carbon in agroecosystems

Miss Olga Sukhoveeva1

1Institute of geography RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation

We offer to use a complex multimodal approach including carbon calculators and simulation models to estimate soil organic matter in agroecosystems. These mathematical methods may help to evaluate content of soil carbon and CO₂ emission from each type of landscapes and forecast changes of carbon pools and fluxes.

We had approbated our method on the base of the Central Forest zone as one of the most important agricultural and economical regions of Russia. Taking into account soil type and growing crops in different administrative units, we distinguished 20 agrolandscapes over the period of 1990-2017. Totally 560 conceptual experiments were designed.

Calculators evaluate carbon balance or footprint in online regime. Unfortunately, they consider only anthropogenic factors, their coefficients in formulas can’t be corrected. We used Ex-ante carbon-balance tool (EX-ACT), Farm Carbon Cutting Toolkit (FCCT), Cool Farm Tool (CFT).

Models involve both natural and anthropogenic input and output parameters of carbon cycle. We used RothC (Rothamsted Carbon model) and DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), parametrized them according to local arable soils conditions using official statistical information and data taken from published sources. Results of multimodel estimation were verified against data of field experiments; modelled values were successfully compared with measurements.

The dynamics of organic carbon in soil depends on features of growing crops and input of organic fertilizers. In the northern regions (Kostroma, Tver) spring barley and oat are dominated, and the losses of organic carbon from soil are typical due to absence of organic fertilizers in cropping technologies. In central regions (Moscow, Kaluga, Yaroslavl) highly productive winter wheat and potato are grown. They are characterized by use of great amount of fertilizers resulting in general accumulation of carbon in the soils.

The research was supported by Fundamental scientific research theme 01201352499 (0148-2018-0006) and Fundamental research program of Presidium of RAS No 51 (0148-2018-0036).


PhD in Geography; Junior researcher at the Laboratory for anthropogenic changes in the climate system; Institute of Geography, Russian academy of sciences. She is the author of more than 50 scientific publications. Area of research involves application of mathematical methods in geography including statistical and simulation modelling biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems and evaluation of regional climate change and its impact on agriculture.



7th International Symposium
Soil Organic Matter

6 – 11 October 2019

Hilton Adelaide

Adelaide, South Australia


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